AYURVEDIC PHARMACOLOGICAL DEFINITIONS
Substances which do not cook the undigested food (not helping the digestion) but only kindle the gastric fire are known as appetisers, deepana. For example, fennel, mishi.
Substances which cook the undigested food but do not kindle the appetite are known as digestives, pachana. For example, nagakesara.
Appetiser and Digestive, deepana-pachana
Substances which possess both actions of kindling the digestive fire (deepana) and cooking the undigested food (pachana) are deepana-pachana, for example, chitraka.
Substances which bring down the increased dosha to normal without expellin them out and do not interfere with the doshas which are normal, are called pallatives, shamana. For example, amrita.
Substances which expel out flatus amd faeces after proper digestion and thus remove the obstructions are known as aperients, anulomana, for example haritaki.
Substances which expel the faeces and other wastes with or without proper digestions are laxatives, sramsana, for example kriamalaka.
Substances which break up the faecal mass and expel it out forcibly are known as purgatives, bhedana, for example katuki.
Substances which make the faeces watery and expel it out forcibly either formed, or not formed into a mass are cathartics, rechana, for example trivrta.
Substances which bring out the raw pitta and kapha from the stomach through the mouth by force are emetics, vamana, for example madanaphala.
Purifiers of the body, deha samshodhana
Substances which dislodge the body wastes from their places and expel them forcibly either in upward or downward direction are purifiers of the body, deha samshodhana, for example devadali phala.
Substances which scratch out the adherent kapha and other wastes from their places are sacrificants, chedana, for example alkalies (ksharas), maricha and shilajatu.
Mild dehydrants, lekhana
Substances which expel the tissues (dhatus) and wastes (malas) of the body after drying up their moisture are known as mild dehydrants, lekhana, for example honey, hot water, vacha and yava.
Water absorbants, grahi
Substances which possess appetiser and digestive properties (deepana-pachana) and also dry up the moisture of the tissues and wastes of the body are water absorbants, grahi, for example, shunthi, jiraka and gajapippali.
Substances which increase vata by their dry (ruksha), cold (shita), astringent (kasaya) and undergoing quick digestion (laghupaka) properties are constipating, sthambhana, for example vatsaka and tuntuka.
Tonics, rejuvenators, elixirs, rasayanas
Substances which ward off old age and diseases are tonics, rejuvenators, elixirs, rasayanas, for example amrta, rudanti, guggulu, haritaki.
Substances which increase sexual desire are aphrodisiacs, vajikara, for example nagabala and kapikacchu bija.
Substances which increase the quantity of semen (sukra) and semenogogues, sukrala, for example ashwagandha, musali, sharkara, and shatavari ksira masa. Bhallataka-phalamajja and amalaki not only increase semen but also help in ejaculating it out. Woman is the stimulator of semen, fruits of brhati expel it, jatiphala witholds it longer, while haritaki dries it up.
Substances which enter even into the minutest pores of the body are called subtle, sukshma, for example saindhava, ksaudra, nimba taila and rubu taila.
Substances which act very quickly in the body, first by spreading all over and undergoing change later are carriers, vyavayi, for example, bhanga, ahiphena.
Substances which weaken the joints by dislodging the ojas from the tissue are vikasi, for example, kramuka, kodrava.
Substances possessing tamoguna, predominantly and cause derangement of the mind are called intoxicants, madakari, for example sura and other alcoholic beverages.
Deadly, agneya, yogavahi
Substances which possess vyavayi, vikasi, sukshma, chedana and madakari properties are agneya and yogavahi in nature and bring about death, for example poison, visa.
Substances which remove the accumulated doshas from the cell pores by their own specific action are pramathi, for example maricha, vasa.
Substances which by their unctous (picchila), heavy (guru) properties block the passages of tissue pores (rasavaha srotas), thereby causing heaviness of the body or organ are obstructants, abhisyandi, for example, yoghurt (dahi).